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  • SmartIAS Admin 10:40 am on 27/11/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    India’s diverse climate ensures availability of all varieties of fresh fruits & vegetables. It ranks second in fruits and vegetables production in the world, after China. As per National Horticulture Database published by National Horticulture Board, during 2014-15 India produced 86.602 million metric tonnes of fruits and 169.478 million metric tonnes of vegetables. The area under cultivation of fruits stood at 6.110 million hectares while vegetables were cultivated at 9.542 million hectares.

    India is the largest producer of ginger and okra amongst vegetables and ranks second in production of potatoes, onions, cauliflowers, brinjal, Cabbages, etc. Amongst fruits, the country ranks first in production of Bananas (26.04%), Papayas (44.51%) and Mangoes (including mangosteens,and guavas) (40.75%).

    The vast production base offers India tremendous opportunities for export. During 2016-17, India exported fruits and vegetables worth Rs. 10,369.96 crores/ 1,552.26 USD Millions which comprised of fruits worth Rs. 4,448.08 crores/ 667.51 USD Millions and vegetables worth Rs. 5,921.88 crores/ 884.75 USD Millions.

    Mangoes, Walnuts, Grapes, Bananas, Pomegranates account for larger portion of fruits exported from the country while Onions, Okra, Bitter Gourd, Green Chilles, Mushrooms and Potatoes contribute largely to the vegetable export basket.

    The major destinations for Indian fruits and vegetables are UAE, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Netherland, Sri Lanka, Nepal, UK, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Qatar.

    Though India’s share in the global market is still nearly 1% only, there is increasing acceptance of horticulture produce from the country. This has occurred due to concurrent developments in the areas of state-of-the-art cold chain infrastructure and quality assurance measures. Apart from large investment pumped in by the private sector, public sector has also taken initiatives and with APEDA’s assistance several Centers for Perishable Cargoes and integrated post harvest handling facilities have been set up in the country. Capacity building initiatives at the farmers, processors and exporters’ levels has also contributed towards this effort.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:28 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    Biomethane –
    1. It is a naturally occurring gas which is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter (dead animal and plant material, manure, sewage, organic waste)
    2. It is less corrosive and more valuable as a fuel than biogas.
    3. It is an alternative to natural gas and it is a green source of energy.
    (In News: India’s first bio-methane bus has been manufactured by Tata Motors Ltd. and promoted by the Union Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas)

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:12 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Fundamental rights 

    In Indian Constitution- about fundamental rights –
    1. Right to Life – Article 21
    2. Freedom of Expression – Article 19
    3. Right to Equality – Article 14

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:10 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Nelson Mandela International Day 

    Nelson Mandela International Day –
    1. It is celebrated on July 18 to mark birth anniversary of Nelson Mandela, the former South African President & Nobel Peace Prize winner.
    2. It pramotes the culture of justice, peace and freedom.

  • SmartIAS Admin 2:38 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Fundamental rights 

    In Indian Constitution- about fundamental rights –
    Right to Life – Article 21
    Freedom of Expression – Article 19
    Right to Equality Article 14

  • SmartIAS Admin 2:27 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Cattle Genomics programme 

    ‘Cattle Genomics programme’ –
    1. Its main aim is to predict breeding values of animal, using DNA level information.
    2. a high-density DNA chips will be developed under this scheme to reduce the cost and time interval of breeding of the native livestock.
    3. Genomic selection will ensure high-yielding, disease-resistant, resilient livestock.

  • SmartIAS Admin 2:20 pm on 19/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    Biotech-KISAN (Krishi Innovation Science Application Network) Scheme
    1. It aims to empower small- and women- farmers with science implementation.
    2. It is launched by of Department of Biotechnology (DBT).

    Features of Biotech-KISAN:
    1. It is for farmers.
    2. It is by farmers- developed in consultation with the farmers)
    3. It empower small- and women- farmers.
    4. It is based on ‘a hub-and spoke model’
    5. It stimulates entrepreneurship and innovation in farmers.
    6. It is ‘Pan India’ programme.
    7. It disseminates best/good agriculture practises (GAP).
    8. It will connect farmers, scientist and science institution across country
    9. The fellowship will be given to women farmers for training and education in farm practice.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:27 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 

    Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI)
    It is released by the UN telecommunications agency International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
    India has topped the index.
    It is a multi-stakeholder initiative to measure the commitment of countries to cybersecurity.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:27 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    Hebron –
    1. It is a city in the West Bank, situated in the southern Judaean Hills south-southwest of Jerusalem.
    2. Recently, Hebron’s Old Town was put on the UNESCO’s World Heritage list and on the list of heritage in danger.
    3. In Judaism, it is considered the second-holiest city after Jerusalem, while Islam regards it as one of the four holy cities

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:27 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Concerns with VVPAT 

    Concerns with VVPAT –
    1.It is based on DRE which relies on the same proprietary programming and electronics to produce the audit trail.
    2. A manual VVPAT recount/audit is labor-intensive and expensive.
    3. The introduction of malicious software into a VVPAT system can cause it to intentionally misrecord the voter’s selections.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:27 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Voter-verifiable paper audit trail (VVPAT) 

    Voter-verifiable paper audit trail (VVPAT)-
    1. It is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot less voting system.
    2. It allows voters to verify if their vote has gone to the intended candidate.
    3. When a vote is cast, a receipt is generated showing the serial number, name and symbol of the candidate.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:26 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Ragi’s genome sequencing 

    Ragi’s genome sequencing –
    1. This will help in developing varieties for drought-resistant and nutrition-rich.
    2. Genome of finger millet or ragi is sequenced by University of Agricultural Sciences-Bengaluru.
    3. It was first domesticated from Uganda and Ethiopian highlands.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:26 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Seed Plot Technique 

    Seed Plot Technique –
    It is a seed production method used at farm level, mainly for the farmers’ own seed supply.
    It is practiced in vegetativally propagated crop like potato.
    It is use of healthy and viruse free seeds.
    It is result of efforts of Cockerham (Scotland).
    It is applied to improve the seed quality of highly appreciated.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:25 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 

    International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)-
    1. It is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Banos, Philippines.
    2. it contributed to the Indian Green Revolution of 1960s.
    3. It has developed vit. A rich ‘golden rice’.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:21 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Presidential poll 

    Presidential poll-
    1. Newly elected President of India sworn in to office by the Chief Justice of India.
    2. The electoral college for presidential polls consists of all MPs (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, excluding nominated members) and MLAs of all State legislatures.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:12 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Ramakrishna Mission – 

    Ramakrishna Mission –
    1. It was established in 1887 by Swami Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.
    2. Central math is located at Belur.
    3. Childhood name of Ramakrishna was Gadadhar Chattopadhyay.
    (1 is wrong bz it was established in 1887 by Swami Vivekananda, the chief disciple of Swami Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. )

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:03 pm on 17/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) 

    Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)-
    1. It is an organization tasked to assist the Central Board of Trustees.
    2. It is a statutory body formed by the EPF&MP Act, 1952.
    3. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
    In TheHinduNews: Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO)
    1. All religious trusts and places (maths, temples, gurudwara, and churches)employing at least 20 workers are required to extend provident fund benefits to their staff.
    2. The education institutions and hospitals run under Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission have been exempted from the EPFO’s coverage.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:53 pm on 05/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Delhi Dialogue 

    Delhi Dialogue
    1. It is organised by Govt. of Delhi.
    2. It is a premier annual a conference to discuss politico-security, economic and socio-cultural engagement between ASEAN and India.
    (1 is worng Bz it is organised by MEA with Observer Research Foundation (ORF)& FICCI.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:53 pm on 05/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR TB) 

    Causes of Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR TB)
    1. mismanagement of ordinary TB treatment.
    2. person-to-person transmission.

    About Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR TB) – 
    1. It can be detected using Xpert Test.
    2. bacteria causing TB does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful anti-TB drugs.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:52 pm on 05/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    AFSPA –
    1. It gives powers to the army and state and central police forces to shoot to kill involve in insurgency in disturbed area.
    2. Status of ‘disturbed areas’ is declared by the home ministry.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:51 pm on 05/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    1. also called GSAT-7, which is a multi-band military communications satellite developed by ISRO.
    2. It provide networking capabilities to various Indian Naval assets.

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:50 pm on 05/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Van Mahotsav 

    Van Mahotsav
    1. was started in 1950 by then the Union Minister for Agriculture and Food.
    2. is usually observed in the first week of July every year .

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:12 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    National Multi-Commodity Exchange (NMCE) 

    National Multi-Commodity Exchange (NMCE)
    1. India’s first demutualized multi-commodities exchange.
    2. It approved to merged with Indian Commodity Exchange (ICEX).

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:11 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Legality of Abortion in India 

    Legality of Abortion in India
    1. Normally, it is legal only up to 20 weeks of pregnancy.
    2. In case of married, husband’s consent is required.
    (2 is wrong Bz husband’s consent is not required)

  • SmartIAS Admin 6:10 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Global Entry Programme 

    Global Entry Programme
    1. It is a US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) program that allows speedy clearance for low-risk travellers upon their arrival in the US.
    2. The membership is valid for five years.
    3. India is eligible to become members of this programme.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:50 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    ‘Politburo’ was in news –
    1. It is the principal policy making committee of a communist party.
    2. It is feature of Vietnamese and Russian Govt.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:49 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    1. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in north.
    2. Capital and most populous city of Algeria is Algiers.
    3. It is Africa’s largest country.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:48 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Saffron cultivation 

    Saffron cultivation
    1. It is most expensive spice in the world and popularly known as ‘Red Gold.
    2. It’s commercial part is ‘Stigma’.
    3. It is propagated through corms.
    4. In India, It is mainly cultivated in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.

  • SmartIAS Admin 5:00 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Sunderbans mangrove 

    Sunderbans mangrove
    1. It is the largest tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.
    2. It is located in the delta region of Padma, Meghna and Brahmaputra river basins.
    3. It is recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Site and as Ramsar Site.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:59 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) appointment 

    Chief Election Commissioner (CEC)appointment
    1. he is appointed by President of India.
    2. his office term is fixed for 6 years or till age of 65 year
    3. Election commissioners is sub-ordinate to Chief Election Commissioner interms of power and salary.
    (3 is wrong, bz- both are equal)

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:58 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    CHF & Swiss Franc 

    CHF & Swiss Franc‘ was in news
    1. The currency code for Francs is CHF.
    2. The Swiss Franc is the currency of Switzerland.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:58 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    Doklam –
    1. It is tri-junction of India, China and Bhutan
    2. It is part of Sikkim state(India).
    (2 is Wrong, Bz- It is a part of Bhutan originally)

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:57 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Vice President election 

    Vice President election
    1. There no impeachment process to remove Vice President.
    2. Vice-presidential candidate should be qualified to become a member of Rajya Sabha.
    3. MLAs or MLCs from state assemblies have no role to play in Vice Presidential election.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:57 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Global Skill Park 

    Global Skill Park
    1. It function on the spirit of ‘With Industry-For Industry’
    2. It is based on Singapore model.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:56 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) 

    Ebola virus disease (EVD)
    1. Ebola River located in Democratic Republic of Congo.
    2. Fruit bats are natural host of this virus.
    3. World Health Organization (WHO) has developed proven treatment ‘vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV’ against it.
    (3 is wrong bz, so far no proven treatment available it)

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:55 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    QR-SAM –
    1. is a quick reaction surface-to-air short range missile.
    2. It is an all-weather weapon system capable of tracking and firing.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:54 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    DART –
    1. is NASA’s mission targted to deflect a near-Earth asteroid ‘Didymos’.
    2. it will allow mankind to protect the planet from potential cosmic body impacts in the future.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:53 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    World’s sharpest laser 

    World’s sharpest laser with record-breaking precision has been developed by PTB Germany .
    1. It is having a linewidth of only 10 miliHertz (mHz).
    2. This precision is useful for optical atomic clocks, spectroscopy, radioastronomy and for testing the theory of relativity.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:53 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    One-horned rhinoceros 

    One-horned rhinoceros –
    1. It is the largest of the Asian Rhinos.
    2. extensively distributed in the Gangetic plains.
    3. listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:52 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    India China Border 

    India China Border –
    1. Western Sector – Jammu and Kashmir
    2. Middle sector- Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
    3. Eastern sector- Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh

  • SmartIAS Admin 4:51 pm on 04/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Aksai Chin 

    ‘Aksai Chin ‘ was in news –
    1. It is the disputed border area between China and India.
    2. It is northernmost part of the Arunachal Pradesh.
    3. The area is featured with cold desert.
    (2 is wrong bz it is easternmost part of the Jammu and Kashmir state.)

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:57 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) 

    Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST)

    1. it is a aircraft design of NASA

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:56 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Trust Fund 

    Trust Fund‘ was in news –
    1. it is also called UN Tax Fund or UN Trust Fund for International Cooperation in Tax Matters
    2. it aimed at helping the developing countries to actively participate in the discussion of tax issues.
    3. USA is first country to make a voluntary contribution to the UN tax fund.
    (3 is Wrong, India is first country )

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:55 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) 

    National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) –
    1. It provides free legal aid to the poor and weaker sections of the society and promote justice on the basis of equal opportunity.
    2. Articles 39 A of the Constitution also make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before law.
    (2 is Wrong bz it is Articles 14 and 22(1)and; Articles 39 A provides for free legal aid)

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:53 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    C 17 Globemaster III 

    C-17 Globemaster III –
    is largest military transport aircraft developed by USA.
    (in news bz – India is buying it from USA)

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:46 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Asian Development Bank 

    Asian Development Bank –
    1. an international development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through loans.
    2. It admits the members of the UNESCAP and non-regional developed countries.

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:45 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) 

    Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) is –
    1. a tax standard that governs how tax authorities of participating countries exchange information with one another related to taxpayers’ foreign bank and safekeeping accounts.
    2. The AEI standard has been developed and published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    3. it is key to prevent international tax evasion and avoidance.

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:44 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  


    ‘CHESS’ was in news. It is –
    1. a spectrograph which provides information on how much of any given wavelength of light is present.
    2. supported through NASA’ s Sounding Rocket Program.
    3. CHESS data will be used to evaluate how the interstellar cloud is structured.

  • SmartIAS Admin 12:44 pm on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Mizo Peace Accord 

    ‘Mizo Peace Accord’ provides-
    1. Mizo was notified as an official Indian language.
    2. Mizo religious and social customs were promised Constitutional protection.
    3. Mizoram got full-fledged state status.

  • SmartIAS Admin 8:18 am on 01/07/2017 Permalink | Reply  

    Ease of doing business index 

    Ease of doing business index-
    1. It is an index created by the World Bank Group.
    2. A nation’s ranking on the index is based on the average of 10 subindices.

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